Tag Archives: counter

Getting Shellaced!

These little lac bugs make the shellac resin. Pretty handy!
These little lac bugs make the shellac resin. Pretty handy!

Out of all the different ‘food safe’ finishes I researched for our woodwork (especially the counter and table), I ended up on shellac.  Part of my initial examination of finishes was whether they could be consumed without harming people, and the non-toxic lac resin that shellac is made out of made it seem like a good choice.

Shellac is available in both solid flakes that are dissolved in denatured alcohol before being applied, and as a premixed solution in a regular paint/stain can that only needs to be stirred/mixed before use.  In either circumstance, the liquid/dissolved form can be thinned out more with denatured alcohol until it gets too old and begins to crystallize back out of solution.  While the flakes are harder to find, many woodworking stores have them, while the premixed shellac is readily available at most hardware stores.

Rust-Oleum Zinsser 304H 1-Quart Bulls Eye Clear Shellac (Tools & Home Improvement)

List Price: $24.62 USD
New From: $12.91 USD In Stock
Used from: Out of Stock

Dewaxed Super Blonde Shellac Flakes 1/2 Lb, or 8 Oz

List Price: $19.50 USD
New From: $15.99 USD In Stock
Used from: Out of Stock

Shellac has been used as a medicine for thousands of years, and as a (documented) furniture finish as early as the 1500’s.  It really caught on in the early 19th century as eastern Asian trade began to get more trendy and really flourish.  It was the finish for fine furniture from those early 1800’s times until the 1920’s and 1930’s when modern lacquer was introduced, but continued to hold a large market share of use until the 1950’s and 60’s when polyurethane and ‘wiping varnishes’ became the rage.  Marketers played down shellac’s finishes as not being as water-resistant, and pointing out that shellac degrades after it’s been dissolved (after about three years it won’t ‘set’ right), and the public started to move away from it, though high quality furniture makers continued using it.

Some of the different colors of shellac chips.
Some of the different colors of shellac chips.

Shellac resins come in a range of colors based on the type of tree the bugs feed upon and on the time of year harvested.   The most common colors are ‘amber’ and ‘blond’ or ‘clear’ which is actually bleached.  While most shellac used during the 1800’s and early 1900’s is the amber variety, mixes of differing amounts of the two types can give a wide range of intensity of the depth of color.  Clear coats can be put over an amber layer with no problems, creating a ‘topcoat’ for protection that’s easily fixed.  Shellac also has some wax to it (about 5% in natural shellac), but comes in a ‘de-waxed’ type as well that is a little more water resistant.

Now, you might ask why I’d choose shellac when there are more durable options?  Well, first off, there’s the ease of application.  Shellac dries really quickly, and unless you have bubbles of hair or something in the coat you want to apply over, you don’t have to sand between coats.  This is because the alcohol in the shellac you’re applying as a second (or subsequent) coat will slightly dissolve the top surface of the already applied coat and the new layer will just blend right into it.

That leads me into the second reason, that it’s easily repaired.  Denatured alcohol on a rubbing cloth can smooth out a crack.  Crazing or ‘orange peel’ pocking can be smoothed out by misting an area with the denatured alcohol.  A small area can be stripped to deal with issues with the underlying wood without damaging the rest of the finish, and then new coats can be applied to the area to build it back up and blend it into the existing finish.

The third reason is the same one that causes fine furniture makers to choose shellac – it’s look.  Because the coats all blend, the finish looks deep and rich, and the wood is all nicely visible.  As I’m using such nice pieces of oak to begin with, I like that it gets show off so well.

The shellaced counter is shiny!
The shellaced counter is shiny!


So this is what you come out with using the shellac.  The oak has a ‘Golden Oak’ stain on it, and once that was dry, the shellac clung to it with no issues at all.

Shellaced benches drying in the back.
Shellaced benches drying in the back.

And I even got a chance to put some shellac on the wood panels that I put in the fridge doors, helping to protect and gloss those as well.  But they escaped pictures, so I’ll have to get them another time.

All that said, it isn’t the ‘perfect’ finish.  It can scratch, so it will be best to try and use buffers (doilies) and avoid using harsh cleaners on the shellac.  If it gets up over 120 degrees, it might start to craze.  But a layer of polish wax can help make it more water resistant, so there are some ways to work with the issues.

Finishing Wood: Counters & Food Safety?

The counter at initial install.
The counter at initial install.

So, as I mentioned in a previous post, I put two nice oak planks together to make our counter.  While I had hit the counter with a Minwax stain, I had held off on finishing it for two reasons.  First, I was hoping to get the sink placed, and second, I wasn’t sure which finish to use. 

Minwax 70001444 Wood Finish Penetrating Stain, quart, Golden Oak (Tools & Home Improvement)

List Price: $8.49 USD
New From: $7.48 USD In Stock
Used from: Out of Stock

There had been some condensation (I think) drips from the roof in the corner all the way back by the fridge and the window, and that had discolored the stain a little, so I wasn’t really worried about using the counter for our trips as it was.  After our Allegany trip last October though, condensation from a hot pot boiling water for tea and the cold closed window produced a couple of dark rings and spots on the oak that I wasn’t happy with.  I was able to take care of them with the orbital sander and some new stain, which proves that the stain did help keep the water from penetrating deeply, but I wanted to make sure it didn’t happen again, so I needed to finish the counter, sink or not.

That meant that it was time for research.  If you do a quick google search for ‘foodsafe wooden counter finish’ (or something similar) you will find that there are a myriad of options, and it really seemed that each woodworker would only use ‘this’ or ‘that’ and that all their customers were happy with the work.  However, in looking for the product and trying to pin down the ‘foodsafe’ stuff, there’s a problem. in that none of the information sheets seemed to indicate that it had been rated as such.

There were some very common answers in looking at food safety and woodworking, mostly the oils like tung oil, raw linseed oil (not boiled), walnut oil, and mineral oil.  These are soaked into the wood, and all but the tung oil need frequent reapplication to maintain the protective ability, but leave the wood oily to the touch, and need periods of air-drying after.  Great for a butcher-block or cutting board surface that you’ll be putting your food directly on, but kind of inconvenient for a counter in a place where all your space counts, and you have to wait for the oil to soak in or dry to a point where you can set things back on it.

Waxes were another answer, with beeswax coming up quickly.  A soft, nice smelling wax, beeswax is often sold to woodturners as a finish for things coming off the lathe, but can be used as a finish on non-turned woods as well.  While it is water resistant, it can be mixed with oils to be easier to apply and somewhat more water repellent.  Carnauba wax (which I only knew was good on cars) is another option, being a more durable (hard) wax than beeswax and as more resistant to water as well.  It is often used on wooden utensils and as a topcoat over other finishes on wood.

Shellac is another that came up at the top of my searches.  Made from the secretions (lac) of any one of a number of species of  lac insects. Harvested mostly in India, but also a number of Southeast Asian countries, China & Mexico, these resinous secretions are crushed, sieved, and either heat-treated or chemically dissolved to create the solid shellac which is later dissolved in denatured alcohol to produce the finish used on wood. Super blond (clear) shellac is the most water resistant variety, though the amber variety was more used on furniture in the past.

And while most of these pages of information decried polyurethane as a sort of dangerous evil for food safe finishes, some sites said it was their preferred choice, so I did some more research.  Polyurethane is an organic polymer bonded together with a urethane to produce a thicker, tougher, abrasion and water resistant finish than shellac.  While it is often used on floors for its durability, many furniture makers don’t like to use it as it covers fine details and can look overly thick.  It also has a problem in that repeated knocks or flexing can cause the finish to break lose from the wood beneath it (though not from the surrounding finish) causing opaque or milky pockets within the finish.

But people know that polyurethanes give off VOCs as they cure, and thus they must be evil.  Likewise, two-part epoxies can make an awesome covering for a bar, being both thick and amazingly water resistant, but their self-leveling properties mean that they can only really be used on horizontal surfaces as they will drip and run off a vertical or angled surface.

The thing with the food safety of any of these finishes is that they are a smooth, unbroken surface.  Any of the above finishes are food-safe once fully cured, so long as flakes of the finish won’t come up in your food as you take it off.  Cracks and shatters would make the finish unsafe for food.

So, in a way, all my research came down to that – all the finishes on the market would be food safe (baring spar varnish, which never fully cures, though spar urethane is probably okay) so long as they are intact and fully cured.  And, that said, I set on shellac for our wood, and I’ll explain why in my next post …


The fancy floorplan.

With the fridge finally in place, I have a firm ‘wall’ to start to build the kitchen in.  I knew for sure that the counter would be at the level of the base of the windows so that we wouldn’t lose visibility, but the actual arrangement of drawers and storage/access cabinets would depend on placement of other things, like the stove and the sink.  If you look on the original floorplan, you can see that there’s a whole lot of potential counter space where things could go.

The stove was easy to place, as my plan was to put it at one of the ’emergency’ windows that can be swung out and give lots of good ventilation if we need it.  As there are two such windows along the counter (colored red in the floorplan diagram), the stove could have gone along either one, but putting it along the fore window would give more ‘working space’ around the sink, which is fairly important when washing dishes and such.  And since we actually had the stove, I could place it so much more precisely than in the floorplan where there’s essentially a 24″ x 28″ space for the (three burner – ha!) stove.

The sink was a more dicey matter in terms of placement.  The window closest to the fridge is ‘sticky’ – there are some scratches in the aluminum frame, and it can make the window hard to close (at least form the inside). My original thought was to put it right in front of that window near the fridge to maximize the available counterspace between the sink and stove, but being able to have fresh air while doing dishes ranks highly, so the sink may move closer.  Actually doing the placement is going to wait until we ‘play’ with the space for a bit.  I had hoped to do this on one last camping trip of the Sprague Brook season, but it just never came to be.

The stove!The first thing I did was take measurements and figure out the placement of the stove.  I was planning for a 24″ deep stove,since I kept seeing that come up as a dimension for newer stoves, but ours is only about 20″ deep, leaving about 4 inches of counter behind it. And while the window comes out to be more than 24″ wide, the stove is only 21″ wide, and that measurement (like the depth) includes 1/2″ of overlap of the trim.

This gave me some concrete information to work with in making the countertop.  While I’ve seen lots of people using some of the pre-made household counters in their skoolies, my wife had shown me an article on how to build a counter that gave the look of thick oak planks and we both liked the look. However, the idea of having beveled edges between the planks seemed to just be an invitation to a continually dirty counter.  So as a compromise, I had decided to use oak to make a counter, with no beveled edges, and as few seams as possible.

It turned out that I had just enough oak in two almost 13″ wide by 1 1/8″ thick planks that, when planed down and jointed, came out to the right length for the counter from fridge-wall to side-facing seat.  These pieces were fixed together with the Kreg pocket-jig and some 1 1/4″ fine-thread screws.  

Kreg K4MS Jig Master System (Tools & Home Improvement)

List Price: $139.00 USD
New From: $139.00 USD In Stock
Used from: $120.92 USD In Stock

Even with some bowing in the plank, which was fixed with clamps, screwed, and sanded down to fit where the stove would go.

The stove structure and enclosure. 2x3" beams and 1/2" plywood, and some 3/4x2" pine to keep things even.
The stove structure and enclosure. 2×3″ beams and 1/2″ plywood, and some 3/4×2″ pine to keep things even.

In order to support the counter without actually having counters underneath it, I decided to build in some 2×3″ supports that would hold it up, and just fit the sides of the stove, with allowances for 1/2″ plywood on the inside of the enclosure to help support it.  The 2×3″ supports that attached to the wall rest upon a 2×4″ that is screwed into the wall supports.  I used more pocket screws to attach the horizontal supports to the 2×4″ and then attached the vertical supports to the 2×3″ that was attached to the floor.  The 2×4″ was attached to the wall at a height that would put the 7/8″ thick counter just below the level of the windows allowing for a 3/4-1″ oak backsplash to be added at a later time.

Counter supports in place.
Counter supports in place.

One additional support at the fridge wall and another toward the seat edge, though the one near the seat is back about 10″ so that I could put a small lower drawer and upper ‘bin’ at seat height that would have nice storage space for passengers and the counter above it.

The stove looks awesome in place!
The stove looks awesome in place!

With this all set, I stained the counter and slid it into place, checking the fitting and adjusting the ‘square’ of the stove structural fittings before using more pocket screws to sink things into place.  A 3/4×1 1/2″ edging was affixed to the counter after being rounded with a router and the stove was set in place (the edging had to come up to the trim of the stove.  This was also affixed from underneath with pocket screws.

The counter as seen from the captain's chair.
The counter as seen from the captain’s chair.

I had considered leaving the leading corner of the counter as a 90 degree angle, but thought that it would present too much of a chance for a bruise in the close quarters with several people on the bus.  Toward that end, I decided to trim the corner and make it a simple 45 degree angle, which was easy to work with for the trim.

The counter from the aft, by the bunks.
The counter from the aft, by the bunks.

With the counter in place as it is, it looks like a lot of space, though we’ll need to decide where the sink will go, and I was expecting to put in a full size sink as opposed to the RV sink that we salvaged from the trailer.  The salvaged sink is stainless steel and in decent shape, but it’s only 4 or 5 inches deep.  A standard kitchen sink is around 9 inches deep, and a double sink that deep could easily have one side filled with hot water and suds to wash and then use the other side to rinse and thus conserve water while still doing a full set of dishes for four or six people.

One of my concerns right now is that the 29″ height that the counter is at (the bottom of the windows) may be a bit low to be comfortable tpo work at for long periods of time since most counters are at about 35″ height.  That said, I do make cookies and bracciole at our kitchen table and it’s only about 29″ tall, so … time will tell.